Alternative fuels journal pdf

Unsourced material may be challenged alternative fuels journal pdf removed. The air engine is an emission-free piston engine that uses compressed air as a source of energy. The expansion of compressed air may be used to drive the pistons in a modified piston engine. Efficiency of operation is gained through the use of environmental heat at normal temperature to warm the otherwise cold expanded air from the storage tank.

This non-adiabatic expansion has the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of the machine. The source for air is a pressurized carbon-fiber tank. Air is delivered to the engine via a rather conventional injection system. Unique crank design within the engine increases the time during which the air charge is warmed from ambient sources and a two-stage process allows improved heat transfer rates. The electrical energy carried on board a BEV to power the motors is obtained from a variety of battery chemistries arranged into battery packs.

For additional range genset trailers or pusher trailers are sometimes used, forming a type of hybrid vehicle. The Leaf achieved the milestone of 250,000 units sold globally in December 2016. December 2010, with global sales of more than 250,000 units through December 2016. 25,205 units through December 2016.

A solar car is an electric vehicle powered by solar energy obtained from solar panels on the car. Solar panels cannot currently be used to directly supply a car with a suitable amount of power at this time, but they can be used to extend the range of electric vehicles. They are raced in competitions such as the World Solar Challenge and the North American Solar Challenge. Such challenges are often entered by universities to develop their students engineering and technological skills as well as motor vehicle manufacturers such as GM and Honda. Trev’s battery lasts over 250,000 kilometres. Originally called Sunrayce, organized and sponsored by General Motors in 1990, it was renamed American Solar Challenge in 2001, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Teams from universities in the United States and Canada compete in a long distance test of endurance as well as efficiency, driving thousands of miles on regular highways. The Nunas are built by students of the Delft University of Technology. Australia from Darwin to Adelaide. The race attracts teams from around the world, most of which are fielded by universities or corporations although some are fielded by high schools. Trev was first displayed at the 2005 World Solar Challenge as the concept of a low-mass, efficient commuter car.

10 of the running cost of a small petrol car. Only moderate modification are needed to convert a diesel engine to burn DME. Large-scale ammonia production uses natural gas for the source of hydrogen. Ammonia was used during World War II to power buses in Belgium, and in engine and solar energy applications prior to 1900. Although not as powerful as other fuels, it left no soot in the reusable rocket engine and its density approximately matches the density of the oxidizer, liquid oxygen, which simplified the aircraft’s design.

The calorific value of ammonia is 22. In 1981 a Canadian company converted a 1981 Chevrolet Impala to operate using ammonia as fuel. It can be made from renewable electricity, and having half the density of petrol or diesel can be readily carried in sufficient quantities in vehicles. On complete combustion it has no emissions other than nitrogen and water vapour. Other car manufactures also provided engines for ethanol fuel use. Furthermore, additional attention was gained because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuel. Brazil, with a warmer climate.