Parenting child development santrock pdf to the intricacies of raising a child aside from the biological relationship. Winnicott wrote, “The good-enough motherstarts off with an almost complete adaptation to her infant’s needs, and as time proceeds she adapts less and less completely, gradually, according to the infant’s growing ability to deal with her failure. Views on the characteristics that make one a good or “good-enough” parent vary from culture to culture. Cultural values play a major role in how a parent raises their child.
A family’s social class plays a large role in the opportunities and resources that will be made available to a child. Also, lower working-class families do not get the kind of networking that the middle and upper classes do through helpful family members, friends, and community individuals and groups as well as various professionals or experts. A parenting style is the overall emotional climate in the home. These parenting styles were later expanded to four, including an uninvolved style. On the one hand, these four styles of parenting involve combinations of acceptance and responsiveness, and on the other hand, involve demand and control. In particular, authoritative parenting is positively related to mental health and satisfaction with life, and authoritarian parenting is negatively related to these variables.
Described by Baumrind as the “just right” style, in combines a medium level demands on the child and a medium level responsiveness from the parents. Authoritative parents rely on positive reinforcement and infrequent use of punishment. Parents are more aware of a child’s feelings and capabilities and support the development of a child’s autonomy within reasonable limits. There is a give-and-take atmosphere involved in parent-child communication and both control and support are balanced. An example of authoritative parenting would be the parents talking to their child about their emotions. Authoritarian parents are very rigid and strict.
They place high demands on the child, but are not responsive to the child. Parents who practice authoritarian style parenting have a rigid set of rules and expectations that are strictly enforced and require rigid obedience. When the rules are not followed, punishment is most often used to promote future obedience. There is usually no explanation of punishment except that the child is in trouble for breaking a rule. Because I said so” is a typical response to a child’s question of authority.
This type of authority is used more often in working-class families than the middle class. In 1983 Diana Baumrind found that children raised in an authoritarian-style home were less cheerful, more moody and more vulnerable to stress. In many cases these children also demonstrated passive hostility. An example of authoritarian parenting would be the parents harshly punishing their children and disregarding their children’s feelings and emotions. Permissive or indulgent parenting is more popular in middle-class families than in working-class families. In these family settings, a child’s freedom and autonomy are highly valued, and parents tend to rely mostly on reasoning and explanation.