History of alcohol pdf

This article is about the class of chemical compounds. The three “R’s” stand for carbon substituents or hydrogen atoms. William Johnson glosses the word as “antimonium sive stibium. By extension, history of alcohol pdf word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including “alcohol of wine,” the distilled essence of wine.

18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as “alcohols” in modern chemistry after 1850. IUPAC rules for naming phenols. In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word “alcohol”, e. As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is often indicated using the “hydroxy-” prefix. For the tertiary alcohols the general form is RR’R”COH. 21 carbons, and very long-chain alcohols have alkyl chains of 22 carbons or longer. Simple alcohols” appears to be a completely undefined term.

However, simple alcohols are often referred to by common names derived by adding the word “alcohol” to the name of the appropriate alkyl group. For more complex alcohols, the IUPAC nomenclature must be used. The higher alcohols—those containing 4 to 10 carbon atoms—are somewhat viscous, or oily, and they have heavier fruity odours. Some of the highly branched alcohols and many alcohols containing more than 12 carbon atoms are solids at room temperature. Alcohol has a long history of several uses worldwide. It is found in alcoholic beverages sold to adults, as fuel, and also has many scientific, medical, and industrial uses.