Types of toothbrushes pdf

The first electric toothbrush, the Broxodent, was invented types of toothbrushes pdf Switzerland in 1954 by Dr. The device plugged into a standard wall outlet and ran on line voltage. The Broxo Electric Toothbrush was introduced in the U. After introduction, it was marketed in the U.

Squibb under the names Broxo-Dent or Broxodent. The batteries were sealed inside the GE device, and the whole unit had to be discarded when the batteries failed. The use of an AC line voltage appliance in a bathroom environment was problematic. By the 1990s there were problems with safety certification of Broxo’s original design. Further, improved battery-operated toothbrushes were providing formidable competition. Ultima and later the Ultrasonex, was patented in the U. Initially, the Ultima worked only on ultrasound, but a few years later, a motor was added to give the Ultrasonex brush additional sonic vibration.

Today, several ultrasonic toothbrushes simultaneously provide both ultrasound and sonic vibration. Electric brushes can be classified into two categories according to the type of action that they employ: vibration or rotation-oscillation. When using vibrating toothbrush, a brushing technique similar to that used with a manual toothbrush is recommended, whereas with rotating-oscillating brushes the recommended cleaning technique is to simply move the brush slowly from tooth to tooth. Any electric toothbrush with movement faster than this limit can be classified as an ultrasonic toothbrush. Certain ultrasonic toothbrushes, such as the Megasonex and the Ultreo, have both sonic and ultrasonic movements.

In order for a toothbrush to be considered “ultrasonic” it has to emit a wave at a minimum frequency of 20,000 Hz or 2,400,000 movements per minute. Typically, ultrasonic toothbrushes approved by the U. 6 MHz, which translates to 192,000,000 movements per minute. These vibrations break up bacterial chains that make up dental plaque and remove their methods of attachment to the tooth surface up to 5 mm below the gum line. Some ultrasonic toothbrushes, such as the Emmi-Dent, provide only ultrasonic motion.