Upper gastrointestinal bleeding pdf

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding affects around upper gastrointestinal bleeding pdf-150 people per 100,000 annually. The presentation of bleeding depends on the amount and location of hemorrhage.

There are many causes for upper GI hemorrhage. Causes are usually anatomically divided into their location in the upper gastrointestinal tract. GI hemorrhage, as the two have different treatment algorithms and prognosis. Fistulae are usually secondary to prior vascular surgery and usually occur at the proximal anastomosis at the third or fourth portion of the duodenum where it is retroperitoneal and near the aorta. The diagnosis of upper GI bleeding is assumed when hematemesis is documented.

In the absence of these findings, consider a nasogastric aspirate to determine the source of bleeding. If the aspirate is negative, the source of a GI bleed is likely lower. The accuracy of the aspirate is improved by using the Gastroccult test. 68 with 2 or 3 factors. The nasogastric aspirate can help determine the location of bleeding and thus direct initial diagnostic and treatment plans.