Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The input voltage depends on the design and purpose of the inverter. 12 V DC, for smaller consumer and commercial inverters that typically run from a rechargeable 12 V lead acid battery or automotive electrical outlet. 24, 36 and 48 V DC, which voltage source inverter pdf common standards for home energy systems.
200 to 400 V DC, when power is from photovoltaic solar panels. 300 to 450 V DC, when power is from electric vehicle battery packs in vehicle-to-grid systems. The two dominant commercialized waveform types of inverters as of 2007 are modified sine wave and sine wave. DC and then converts to AC.
This is one of the simplest waveforms an inverter design can produce and is best suited to low-sensitivity applications such as lighting and heating. Square wave output can produce “humming” when connected to audio equipment and is generally unsuitable for sensitive electronics. However, this is not critical for most electronics as they deal with the output quite well. Where power inverter devices substitute for standard line power, a sine wave output is desirable because many electrical products are engineered to work best with a sine wave AC power source. The standard electric utility provides a sine wave, typically with minor imperfections but sometimes with significant distortion. DVD players, function on quality modified sine wave power. AC motors directly operated on non-sinusoidal power may produce extra heat, may have different speed-torque characteristics, or may produce more audible noise than when running on sinusoidal power.
90 degrees relative to the other. The resultant wave very roughly resembles the shape of a sine wave. Most inexpensive consumer power inverters produce a modified sine wave rather than a pure sine wave. The waveform in commercially available modified-sine-wave inverters resembles a square wave but with a pause during the polarity reversal. Switching states are developed for positive, negative and zero voltages.
The DC bus voltage may be actively regulated, or the “on” and “off” times can be modified to maintain the same RMS value output up to the DC bus voltage to compensate for DC bus voltage variations. The generated gate pulses are given to each switch in accordance with the developed pattern to obtain the desired output. Harmonic spectrum in the output depends on the width of the pulses and the modulation frequency. Numerous items of electric equipment will operate quite well on modified sine wave power inverter devices, especially loads that are resistive in nature such as traditional incandescent light bulbs. However, the load may operate less efficiently owing to the harmonics associated with a modified sine wave and produce a humming noise during operation. This also affects the efficiency of the system as a whole, since the manufacturer’s nominal conversion efficiency does not account for harmonics. Therefore, pure sine wave inverters may provide significantly higher efficiency than modified sine wave inverters.
However, they may be quite noisy. A series LC filter tuned to the fundamental frequency may help. The output of the step-up transformers then gets filtered by capacitors to produce a high voltage DC supply. Finally, this DC supply is pulsed with additional power MOSFETs by the microcontroller to produce the final modified sine wave signal. The AC output voltage of a power inverter is often regulated to be the same as the grid line voltage, typically 120 or 240 VAC at the distribution level, even when there are changes in the load that the inverter is driving. This allows the inverter to power numerous devices designed for standard line power. Some inverters also allow selectable or continuously variable output voltages.
This describes the power that will be available to the device the inverter is driving and, indirectly, the power that will be needed from the DC source. Smaller popular consumer and commercial devices designed to mimic line power typically range from 150 to 3000 watts. As the amount of equipment using the inverter increases, the runtime will decrease. In order to prolong the runtime of an inverter, additional batteries can be added to the inverter. In a series configuration, if a single battery dies, the other batteries will not be able to power the load.
If a single battery is discharged though, the other batteries will then discharge through it. This can lead to rapid discharge of the entire pack, or even an over-current and possible fire. To avoid this, large paralleled batteries may be connected via diodes or intelligent monitoring with automatic switching to isolate an under-voltage battery from the others. Inverter designed to provide 115 V AC from the 12 V DC source provided in an automobile. The unit shown provides up to 1.
2 amperes of alternating current, or enough to power two sixty watt light bulbs. AC equipment designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired voltage. AC power when mains power is not available. DC power to recharge the batteries.