Around the middle of the 19th century, the latter words were coined as the concepts that they described evolved into widespread existence. In current usage, the term “machining” without qualification usually implies the traditional machining processes. Turning operations are operations that rotate the workpiece as the primary method of moving metal against the cutting tool. Water jet machining process pdf are the principal machine tool used in turning.
Milling operations are operations in which the cutting tool rotates to bring cutting edges to bear against the workpiece. Milling machines are the principal machine tool used in milling. Drilling operations are operations in which holes are produced or refined by bringing a rotating cutter with cutting edges at the lower extremity into contact with the workpiece. Drilling operations are done primarily in drill presses but sometimes on lathes or mills. Burnishing produces no swarf but can be performed at a lathe, mill, or drill press. An unfinished workpiece requiring machining will need to have some material cut away to create a finished product.
For example, a workpiece may be required to have a specific outside diameter. A lathe is a machine tool that can be used to create that diameter by rotating a metal workpiece, so that a cutting tool can cut metal away, creating a smooth, round surface matching the required diameter and surface finish. A drill can be used to remove metal in the shape of a cylindrical hole. Although a machine shop can be a stand-alone operation, many businesses maintain internal machine shops which support specialized needs of the business.